Fortresses in the Republic of Macedonia
Fortresses, predominantly the remnants thereof, can literally be found all over the landscape of Macedonia. Materials originally used to build many of these fortifications have long since been repurposed to build other structures as cities grew in size and the need for these fortifications waned. With the invention and use of cannons in the 12th to 14th centuries, many of these stone built strongholds and other fortifications were not as impregnable as before.
These fortresses, most often were citadels strategically built at higher elevations to watch over the cities/citizens they were intended to protect. In Eastern Macedonia there is the Strumica Fortress and the 5th century Tsar (Czar) Towers overlooking the city of Strumica and the river valley of the same name. Above Vinica and the Grdečka River are the remnants of the Viničko Kale.